Today in History: September 3
Highlights in history on this date:
1497: Manuel, king of Portugal, marries Isabella of Spain. One of the conditions for the marriage is that he expel all Jews from Portugal.
1603: France's King Henry IV permits Jesuits to return to France despite opposition.
1609: English navigator Henry Hudson discovers Manhattan, looking for a passage to India on behalf of the Dutch West India Company.
1758: Revolution in Portugal is led by Marquis of Tavora and his wife, who wound King Joseph, but subsequently are arrested.
1783: Britain, France, Spain and United States sign peace treaty of Versailles, officially ending Revolutionary War.
1791: French constitution is passed by National Assembly, making France a constitutional monarchy.
1879: Afghans massacre British legation at Kabul, leading to British occupation of the city.
1904: Japan defeats Russian forces at Liaoyang in China.
1913: City of Nanking falls to Chinese revolutionary forces under Yuan Shih- Kai.
1916: The first German Zeppelin bomber is shot down over England.
1939: Britain, France, New Zealand and Australia declare war on Germany; Germans sink passenger liner "Athenia" off Ireland, killing 112 people.
1943: The British 8th Army invades Italy during World War II, the same day Italy signs a secret armistice with the Allies.
1945: Singapore is returned to British control after being occupied by the Japanese since 1942.
1957: Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser begins talks in Cairo on proposed negotiations for international control of the Suez Canal.
1962: Katanga government accepts UN Secretary-General U Thant's plan for Congolese reunification.
1967: Nguyen Van Thieu is elected president of South Vietnam under a new constitution.
1971: Oil state of Qatar gains independence from Britain.
1976: US Viking II spacecraft lands on Mars.
1978: Pope John Paul II becomes the 264th pontiff of the Roman Catholic Church.
1989: Thousands of blacks march and bathe at "whites only" beaches in nationwide defiance campaign in South Africa.
1990: Russian President Boris Yeltsin unveils plan for Soviet republics to take control of their own economies.
1993: Ukraine agrees to give Russia its nuclear warheads and the Black Sea fleet in return for financial compensation, easing two main disputes between the former Soviet republics.
1994: China and Russia proclaim an end to any lingering hostilities, pledging they would no longer target nuclear missiles or use force against each other.
1996: US President Bill Clinton unleashes cruise missiles at military targets in southern Iraq twice, to punish Saddam Hussein for attacking Kurds in a UN- designated safe zone in northern Iraq.
2000: Russian President Vladimir Putin debuts on the world stage at the UN Millennium Summit in an effort to restore Russia's clout and develop new partners.
2004: Commandos storm a school in the southern Russian town of Beslan and battle separatist rebels holding hundreds of hostages, as crying children flee through explosions and gunfire. More than 330 adults and children are killed.
2006: Europe's first spacecraft to the moon smashes into a volcanic plain as planned, signalling the end of a successful mission to test a new propulsion system and navigation technology for flights to other planets.
2011: Former International Monetary Fund leader Dominique Strauss-Kahn heads back to his native France, leaving the United States behind after the collapse of a sensational sexual assault case that cost him his job and possibly his French presidential ambitions.
2014: Australia bans uranium sales to Russia over Ukraine invasion and opens an embassy in Kiev.
2015: More than 1000 tractors move into Paris as farmers attempt to clog up the capital's roads in protest over falling incomes.
2016: Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte declares a "state of lawlessness" across the country after 14 people die in a bomb explosion that is blamed on terrorists.
2017: US President Donald Trump warns of a "massive military response" after North Korea conducted its biggest nuclear test to date.
2018: More than a dozen dead cows left floating in the Richmond River in North Coast NSW for at least 10 days sparks concerns about increased shark activity.
Diane de Poitiers, French adventuress (1499-1566); Jacques Necker, Swiss economist (1732-1804); Ferdinand Porsche, German designer of Volkswagen car (1875-1951); Urho Kekkonen, president of Finland (1900-1986); Sir McFarlane Burnet, Australian Nobel-prize winning physician (1899-1985); Mort Walker, US "Beetle Bailey" cartoonist (1923-2018); Charlie Sheen, US actor (1965-); Redfoo, US singer, rapper and DJ (1975-); Dominic Thiem, Austrian tennis player (1993-).
THOUGHT FOR TODAY
"Any doctrine that will not bear investigation is not a fit tenant for the mind of an honest man" - Robert G Ingersoll, American lawyer and politician (1833-1899).